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Cloud Technologies

Microsoft Azure

Bandwidth on demand (BoD)

As a service

  • aaS is an acronym for as a service, and refers to something being made available over the Internet to a customer as a service. (Robin Hastings, Making the Most of the Cloud: How to Choose and Implement the Best Services (2013), p. 3). Examples include:

Software as a service


Product-service system (PSS)/Servicizing, Servicizing

Cloud-based integration

Application service provider (ASP)

Web hosting service

Cloud hosting

Wiki hosting service

A wiki hosting service or wiki farm is a server or an array of servers that offer users tools to simplify the creation and development of individual, independent wikis. Wiki farms are not to be confused with wiki “families”, a more generic term for any group of wikis located on the same server.[1]

Comparison of wiki hosting services

List of collaborative software

Microsoft Exchange Server and the Microsoft Outlook client Microsoft Live Meeting Microsoft Lync Server Microsoft Office Live Communications Server Microsoft Office desktop tools for collaboration Microsoft Project Server Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Microsoft SharePoint Server Microsoft SharePoint Workspace, desktop collaboration application Microsoft Team Foundation Server, developer and Agile tools collaboration platform Microsoft Windows Live messenger, office web apps, skydrive, mail


Novell GroupWise

Exchange ActiveSync

Comparison of Exchange ActiveSync clients

Category:Internet mail protocols

List of applications with iCalendar support


Calendar (Apple)

Microsoft Outlook

IBM Notes (formerly Lotus Notes; see branding, below) and IBM Domino (formerly Lotus Domino[1]) are the client and server, respectively, of a collaborative client-server software platform sold by IBM.

Remote backup service

Enterprise-class cloud backup[edit] An enterprise-class cloud backup solution must include an on-premises cache, to mitigate any issues due to inconsistent Internet connectivity.[2] Hybrid cloud backup is an approach combining local backup for fast backup and restore, along with off-site backup for protection against local disasters.[3] Hybrid cloud backup works by storing data to local disk so that the backup can be captured at high speed, and then either the backup software or a D2D2C (Disk to Disk to Cloud) appliance encrypts and transmits data to a service provider. Recent backups are retained locally, to speed data recovery operations. There are a number of cloud storage appliances on the market that can be used as a backup target, including appliances from CTERA Networks, StorSimple and TwinStrata.[4] Recent improvements in CPU availability allow increased use of software agents instead of hardware appliances for enterprise cloud backup.[5] The software-only approach can offer advantages including decreased complexity, simple scalability, significant cost savings and improved data recovery times.[6][7] Examples of no-appliance cloud backup providers include Intronis, and cloudHQ.[8]

Cloud gaming - Remote mobile virtualization for mobile gaming as a service

Centralized computing, Cloud gaming,

Thin clients, Thin client, Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)/Terminal services, Fat client, SPICE (protocol)/SPICE/Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environment,

Cloud clients

Cloud client/Cloud clients

Internet OS, Chrome OS

Grid computing,

In 2007 the term cloud computing came into popularity, which is conceptually similar to the canonical Foster definition of grid computing (in terms of computing resources being consumed as electricity is from the power grid) and earlier utility computing. Indeed, grid computing is often (but not always) associated with the delivery of cloud computing systems as exemplified by the AppLogic system from 3tera.[citation needed]

Utility computing, Time-sharing, Time-sharing, Time-sharing operating systems, VM (operating system),

Distributed computing/Distributed system Data center infrastructure management (DCIM) Server farm, Data center, Server room,

Server sprawl - Server sprawl is a term used in the information technology industry. It describes a set of situations that can occur in data centers that result in poor hardware resource utilization, poor system and software level security, and wasted energy. Various techniques exist to mitigate server sprawl, such as computer virtualization.

Remote administration Remote administration software

Portable application creators

Comparison of online backup services

Category:Cloud storage

Amazon DynamoDB

Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS)

Amazon ElastiCache

Amazon Glacier

Amazon S3 Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is an online file storage web service offered by Amazon Web Services. Amazon S3 provides storage through web services interfaces (REST, SOAP, and BitTorrent).[1] Amazon launched S3, its first publicly available web service, in the United States in March 2006[2] and in Europe in November 2007.[3]

Asus WebStorage

Dropbox (service)

File synchronization

Personal cloud


Carbonite (online backup)

Cloud Data Management Interface CDMI


In computing, iSCSI (Listeni/aɪˈskʌzi/ eye-skuz-ee) is an acronym for Internet Small Computer Systems Interface, an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities.

By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, iSCSI is used to facilitate data transfers over intranets and to manage storage over long distances. iSCSI can be used to transmit data over local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), or the Internet and can enable location-independent data storage and retrieval.

Internet Storage Name Service

Service Location Protocol

Cloud storage gateway

Comparison of streaming media systems

IIS Media Services

Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly Internet Information Server) is an extensible web server created by Microsoft for use with Windows NT family.[2] IIS supports HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SMTP and NNTP. It has been an integral part of the Windows NT family since Windows NT 4.0, though it may be absent from some editions (e.g. Windows XP Home edition), and is not active by default.


VLC media player

Windows Media Services WMS

Comparison of video hosting services



Internet Archive



File hosting service

Content delivery network CDN

Distributed file system for cloud


Google Drive

Google Storage

Google Cloud Storage is a RESTful online file storage web service for storing and accessing data on Google's infrastructure. The service combines the performance and scalability of Google's cloud with advanced security and sharing capabilities. It is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), comparable to Amazon S3 online storage service.

Representational state transfer

In computing, representational state transfer (REST) is an architectural style consisting of a coordinated set of components, connectors, and data elements within a distributed hypermedia system, where the focus is on component roles and a specific set of interactions between data elements rather than implementation details.[1][2] Its purpose is to induce performance, scalability, simplicity, modifiability, visibility, portability, and reliability.[1][2] REST is the software architectural style of the World Wide Web.[2][3][4]

HP Cloud


Windows Live Mesh

Windows Live Devices

Ubuntu One


Software-defined storage SDS

Red Hat, Open Source, software-defined storage

StarWind Software Virtual SAN


SUSE Enterprise Storage

Software-defined data center

IT as a service


IT as a service (ITaaS) [1][2]is an operational model where the IT service provider delivers an information technology solution for the business. The IT service provider can be an internal IT organization or an external IT services company. The recipients of ITaaS can be a Line of Business (LOB) organization within an enterprise or a Small and Medium Business (SMB). The Information Technology solution is typically delivered as a managed service with a clear IT services catalog and pricing associated with each of the catalog items. At its core, ITaaS is a competitive business model where businesses have many options for IT services and the internal IT organization has to compete against those other external options in order to be the selected IT service provider to the business. Options for providers other than the internal IT organization may include IT outsourcing companies and public cloud providers.

ReadySpace Cloud Services

Cloud infrastructure

Cloud computing#Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Dedicated hosting service

Managed hosting

Cloud computing security Cloud Security

Rackspace Cloud

Recovery as a service

Recovery as a service (RaaS),[1] sometimes referred to as disaster recovery as a service (DRaaS), is a category of cloud computing used for protecting an application or data from a natural or human disaster or service disruption at one location by enabling a full recovery in the cloud. RaaS differs from cloud-based backup services by protecting data and providing standby computing capacity on demand to facilitate more rapid application recovery. RaaS capacity is delivered in a cloud-computing model so recovery resources are only paid for when they are used, making it more efficient than a traditional disaster recovery warm site or hot site where the recovery resources must be running at all times.

RaaS architectural models[edit] RaaS architectural models vary depending on the location of the primary or source production application or data. To-cloud RaaS : To-cloud recovery is when the source application is in the users primary private datacenter and the cloud is being used as a backup or recovery target.[3] In-cloud RaaS : In-cloud recovery is when both the source and recovery sites are in the cloud.[4] From-cloud RaaS : From-cloud recovery is when the primary or production application or data is in the cloud and the backup or recovery target site is a private datacenter.[5]

Remote backup service

Open Compute Project

The Open Compute Project (OCP) is an organization that shares designs of data center products among companies, including Facebook, Intel, Google, Apple, Microsoft, Rackspace, Ericsson, Cisco, Juniper Networks, Goldman Sachs, Fidelity, Lenovo and Bank of America.[1]


OneDrive (previously SkyDrive, Windows Live SkyDrive, and Windows Live Folders) is a file hosting service that allows users to sync files and later access them from a web browser or mobile device. Users can share files publicly or with their contacts; publicly shared files do not require a Microsoft account to access them. OneDrive is included in the suite of online services formerly known as Windows Live.

Object storage

Object storage (also known as object-based storage[1]) is a storage architecture that manages data as objects, as opposed to other storage architectures like file systems which manage data as a file hierarchy and block storage which manages data as blocks within sectors and tracks.[2] Each object typically includes the data itself, a variable amount of metadata, and a globally unique identifier. Object storage can be implemented at multiple levels, including the device level (object storage device), the system level, and the interface level. In each case, object storage seeks to enable capabilities not addressed by other storage architectures, like interfaces that can be directly programmable by the application, a namespace that can span multiple instances of physical hardware, and data management functions like data replication and data distribution at object-level granularity.

Comparison of online music lockers

There are currently three large services—Amazon Music, Apple's iTunes Match, and Google Play Music[2]—each incorporating an online music store (see comparison), with purchased songs from the associated music store not counting toward storage limits. Other than additional storage space, the main additional feature provided with an annual fee by and Apple is “scan-and-match”, which examines music files on a computer and adds a copy of matched tracks to the user's music locker without having to upload the files. Google provides both a large amount of storage space and the scan-and-match feature at no cost.


Mobile cloud storage

Category:Cloud storage gateways

Yahoo Sherpa

Sherpa is Yahoo's next-generation cloud storage platform. It is a hosted, distributed and geographically replicated key-value data store. It is a NoSQL system that has been developed by Yahoo, to address scalability, availability, and latency needs of Yahoo websites. Sherpa has abilities such as elastic growth, multi-tenancy, global footprint for local low-latency access, asynchronous replication, representational state transfer (REST) based web service APIs, novel per-record consistency knobs, high availability, compression, secondary indexes, and record-level replication.


A NoSQL (originally referring to “non SQL” or “non relational”)[1] database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data which is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. Such databases have existed since the late 1960s, but did not obtain the “NoSQL” moniker until a surge of popularity in the early twenty-first century,[2] triggered by the needs of Web 2.0 companies such as Facebook, Google, and[3][4][5] NoSQL databases are increasingly used in big data and real-time web applications.[6] NoSQL systems are also sometimes called “Not only SQL” to emphasize that they may support SQL-like query languages.[7][8]

Category:Cloud databases

Amazon Relational Database Service Amazon RDS

Amazon Redshift

Amazon SimpleDB

Amazon DynamoDB

Amazon ElastiCache

Cloud database

Category:Cloud platforms

Category:Amazon Web Services

Category:Open-source cloud hosting services

Category:Cloud communication platforms

Cloud communications

Cloud communications are Internet-based voice and data communications where telecommunications applications, switching and storage are hosted by a third-party outside of the organization using them, and they are accessed over the public Internet. Cloud services is a broad term, referring primarily to data-center-hosted services that are run and accessed over an Internet infrastructure. Until recently, these services have been data-centric, but with the evolution of VoIP (voice over Internet protocol), voice has become part of the cloud phenomenon.[1] Cloud telephony (also known as Hosted Telephony) refers specifically to voice services and more specifically the replacement of conventional business telephone equipment, such as a Private branch exchange (PBX), with third-party VoIP service.[2]

Category:Cloud communication platforms

Apache CloudStack

Open Cloud Computing Interface

Open Grid Forum

IBM/Google Cloud Computing University Initiative

IEEE Cloud Computing

Cisco Unified Computing System

Switched fabric

Switched Fabric or switching fabric is a network topology in which network nodes interconnect via one or more network switches (particularly crossbar switches). Because a switched fabric network spreads network traffic across multiple physical links, it yields higher total throughput than broadcast networks, such as early Ethernet.

Converged network adapter CNA

Fibre Channel over Ethernet

Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is a computer network technology that encapsulates Fibre Channel frames over Ethernet networks. This allows Fibre Channel to use 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks (or higher speeds) while preserving the Fibre Channel protocol. The specification was part of the International Committee for Information Technology Standards T11 FC-BB-5 standard published in 2009.[1]

Cloud computing comparison

Function as a Service

Google App Engine

Google Cloud Dataproc

Google Cloud Platform

Google Compute Engine

Google Container Engine

Google Cloud Platform

HP CloudSystem

Off-site data protection

Comparison of file hosting services Cloud storage

Infrastructure as Code IaC


Hybrid server

Operating-system-level virtualization

Virtual private server VPS

Cloud computing

Home server

Dynamic DNS

Dynamic DNS (DDNS or DynDNS) is a method of automatically updating a name server in the Domain Name System (DNS), often in real time, with the active DDNS configuration of its configured hostnames, addresses or other information.

Email hosting service


Video hosting service

Image hosting service

Clustered file system

SAN file system

A clustered file system is a file system which is shared by being simultaneously mounted on multiple servers. There are several approaches to clustering, most of which do not employ a clustered file system (only direct attached storage for each node). Clustered file systems can provide features like location-independent addressing and redundancy which improve reliability or reduce the complexity of the other parts of the cluster. Parallel file systems are a type of clustered file system that spread data across multiple storage nodes, usually for redundancy or performance.[1]

List of storage area network management systems

This is a list of Storage area network (SAN) management systems. A storage area network is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage.

Brocade Network Advisor Cisco Fabric Manager Enterprise Fabric Connectivity (EFC) Manager EMC ControlCenter EMC VisualSRM EMC Invista Hitachi Data Systems HiCommand HP OpenView Storage Area Manager IBM SAN Volume Controller Symantec Veritas Command Central Storag

List of networked storage hardware platforms

Storage hypervisor

System area network

Virtual Interface Adapter VIA

x86 virtualization

In computing, x86 virtualization refers to hardware virtualization for the x86 architecture. It allows multiple operating systems to simultaneously share x86 processor resources in a safe and efficient manner.

Storage virtualization

Distributed cache

Single system image SSI

In distributed computing, a single system image (SSI) cluster is a cluster of machines that appears to be one single system.[1][2] The concept is often considered synonymous with that of a distributed operating system,[3][4] but a single image may be presented for more limited purposes, just job scheduling for instance, which may be achieved by means of an additional layer of software over conventional operating system images running on each node.[5] The interest in SSI clusters is based on the perception that they may be simpler to use and administer than more specialized clusters.


Bare machine

Time-sharing system evolution

Category:Distributed computing architecture

Category:Network protocols

Category:Cisco protocols


Volunteer computing

List of distributed computing projects

Quality of service

Code mobility

Jungle computing

VMware Infrastructure Virtual backup appliance

Virtual machining

Virtual machine escape

Virtual disk image Disk image#Virtualization



CoreOS is an open-source lightweight operating system based on the Linux kernel and designed for providing infrastructure to clustered deployments, while focusing on automation, ease of application deployment, security, reliability and scalability. As an operating system, CoreOS provides only the minimal functionality required for deploying applications inside software containers, together with built-in mechanisms for service discovery and configuration sharing.[7][8][9][10]

Virtual private server

A virtual private server (VPS) is a virtual machine sold as a service by an Internet hosting service.

Hypervisor A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is a piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. A computer on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is called a host machine, and each virtual machine is called a guest machine. The hypervisor presents the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems. Multiple instances of a variety of operating systems may share the virtualized hardware resources: for example, Linux, Windows, and OS X instances can all run on a single physical x86 machine. This contrasts with operating-system-level virtualization, where all instances must share a single kernel, though the guest operating systems can differ in user space, such as different Linux distributions with the same kernel.

I/O virtualization

Network function virtualization

Platform virtualization – Hardware virtualization

Virtual network


Mobile backend as a service

Mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), also known as “backend as a service” (BaaS),[1][2][3] is a model for providing web app and mobile app developers with a way to link their applications to backend cloud storage and APIs exposed by back end applications while also providing features such as user management, push notifications, and integration with social networking services.[4] These services are provided via the use of custom software development kits (SDKs) and application programming interfaces (APIs). BaaS is a relatively recent development in cloud computing,[5] with most BaaS startups dating from 2011 or later.[6][7][8] Although a fairly nascent industry, trends indicate that these services are gaining mainstream traction with enterprise consumers.[9]

Serverless computing

Serverless computing, also known as Function as a Service (FaaS), is a cloud computing code execution model in which the cloud provider fully manages starting and stopping virtual machines as necessary to serve requests, and requests are billed by an abstract measure of the resources required to satisfy the request, rather than per virtual machine, per hour.[1]

Cloud Security Alliance CSA

The Cloud Security Alliance has 25+ active working groups.[14] Key areas of research include cloud standards, certification, education and training, guidance and tools, global reach, and driving innovation. Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing - Foundational best practices for securing cloud computing.[15] Top Threats to Cloud Computing - Helps organizations make educated risk management decisions regarding their cloud adoption strategies.[16] GRC (Governance, Risk and Compliance) Stack - A toolkit for key stakeholders to instrument and assess clouds against industry established best practices, standards and critical compliance requirements.[17] Cloud Controls Matrix (CCM) - Security controls framework for cloud provider and cloud consumers.[18] CloudTrust Protocol - The mechanism by which cloud service consumers ask for and receive information about the elements of transparency as applied to cloud service providers.[19] Consensus Assessments Initiative Research - Tools and processes to perform consistent measurements of cloud providers.[20] “Software Defined Perimeter” - A proposed security framework that can be deployed to protect application infrastructure from network-based attacks. It will incorporate standards from organizations such as OASIS and NIST and security concepts from organizations like the U.S. DoD into an integrated framework.

Software Defined Perimeter Software Defined Perimeter (SDP), also called a “Black Cloud,” is an approach to computer security which evolved from the work done at the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) under the Global Information Grid (GIG) Black Core Network initiative around 2007.[1] Connectivity in a Software Defined Perimeter is based on a need-to-know model, in which device posture and identity are verified before access to application infrastructure is granted.[2] Application infrastructure is effectively “black” (a DoD term meaning the infrastructure cannot be detected), without visible DNS information or IP addresses.[dubious – discuss] The inventors of these systems claim that a Software Defined Perimeter mitigates the most common network-based attacks, including: server scanning, denial of service, SQL injection, operating system and application vulnerability exploits, man-in-the-middle, cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF), pass-the-hash, pass-the-ticket, and other attacks by unauthorized users.[citation needed]

Security as a service (SECaaS) is a business model in which a large service provider integrates their security services into a corporate infrastructure on a subscription basis more cost effectively than most individuals or corporations can provide on their own, when total cost of ownership is considered. In this scenario, security is delivered as a service from the cloud,[1] without requiring on-premises hardware avoiding substantial capital outlays. These security services often include authentication, anti-virus, anti-malware/spyware, intrusion detection, and security event management, among others.[2]


CloudFlare was ranked in the 7th rank among the top 50 Bad Hosts by Host Exploit.[36] The service has been used by Rescator, a website that sells payment card data.[37][38][39] Two of ISIS' top three online chat forums are guarded by CloudFlare but U.S. law enforcement has not asked them to discontinue the service.[40]

An October 2015 report found that CloudFlare provisioned 40% of SSL certificates used by phishing sites with deceptive domain names resembling those of banks and payment processors.[45]

On November 2015, Anonymous discouraged the use of CloudFlare's services, following the ISIS attacks in Paris and renewed accusation of providing help to terrorists.[46] CloudFlare responded by calling their accusers “15-year-old kids in Guy Fawkes masks” and saying that whenever such concerns are raised they consult actual anti-terrorism experts and that they abide by the law.[47]

Anonymous (group)

Big data


Identity management system

Federated identity Federated identity#Management

Cloud collaboration

Cloud Data Management Interface CDMI


Reliability engineering


Edge computing

Edge Computing is pushing the frontier of computing applications, data, and services away from centralized nodes to the logical extremes of a network.[1] It enables analytics and knowledge generation to occur at the source of the data. This approach requires leveraging resources that may not be continuously connected to a network such as laptops, smartphones, tablets and sensors.[2] Edge Computing covers a wide range of technologies including wireless sensor networks, mobile data acquisition, mobile signature analysis, cooperative distributed peer-to-peer ad hoc networking and processing also classifiable as Local Cloud/Fog computing and Grid/Mesh Computing, dew computing,[3] mobile edge computing,[4][5] cloudlet, distributed data storage and retrieval, autonomic self-healing networks, remote cloud services, augmented reality, and more.[6]

Fog computing

Fog computing[1] or fog networking, also known as fogging,[2][3] is an architecture that uses one or a collaborative multitude of end-user clients or near-user edge devices to carry out a substantial amount of storage (rather than stored primarily in cloud data centers), communication (rather than routed over the internet backbone), and control, configuration, measurement and management (rather than controlled primarily by network gateways such as those in the LTE core network).

Network Load Balancing

Network load balancing (commonly referred to as dual-WAN routing or multihoming) is the ability to balance traffic across two WAN links without using complex routing protocols like BGP.

Network Load Balancing Services

Network Load Balancing Services (NLBS) is a Microsoft implementation of clustering and load balancing that is intended to provide high availability and high reliability, as well as high scalability. NLBS is intended for applications with relatively small data sets that rarely change (one example would be web pages), and do not have long-running in-memory states. These types of applications are called stateless applications, and typically include Web, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and virtual private networking (VPN) servers. Every client request to a stateless application is a separate transaction, so it is possible to distribute the requests among multiple servers to balance the load. One attractive feature of NLBS is that all servers in a cluster monitor each other with a heartbeat signal, so there is no single point of failure.

Category:Microsoft server technology

List of Microsoft server technologies

Skype for Business Server

Category:Network management

Distributed computing

Computer cluster

Parallel computing

IT Operations Analytics

IT service continuity

ITIL security management

Release management

Problem Management

Incident management

ITIL Technical Management

Application Management Services Framework

Software asset management

Problem management

Service desk (ITSM)



Network management

System Center Essentials (SCE)

System Center Configuration Manager

System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM, also known as ConfigMgr),[1] formerly Systems Management Server (SMS)[2] is a systems management software product developed by Microsoft for managing large groups of computers running Windows NT, Windows Embedded, OS X, Linux or UNIX, as well as Windows Phone, Symbian, iOS and Android mobile operating systems.[3] Configuration Manager provides remote control, patch management, software distribution, operating system deployment, network access protection and hardware and software inventory.

IBM SmartCloud

IBM cloud computing

Hardware virtualization

Financial management for IT services

cloud_technologies.txt · Last modified: 2016/08/16 03:10 by Mike J. Kreuzer PhD MCSE MCT Microsoft Cloud Ecosystem